Blog de Ana Fraile
Facultad de Ciencias
 

Octava lección: El agua es vida.

Nueva sección del blog relacionada con la excursión del día 12 de Diciembre, visita a la estación potabilizadora de Salamanca.

Debido a la asignatura sobre EDAR que tuvimos en la carrera, sabía ya alguna de las cosillas, pero sin duda, me impactó mucho algo al final de la visita, dado que era algo que no conocía y me dispuse a averiguar sobre ello.

IMG-20181212-WA0017

En la imagen de la foto se puede observar que hay ocho bombas, lo que no se escucha es que dos de ellas están trabajando, lo cual puede resultar atronador para oídos profanos en esto de los equipos de fluidos. Estas ocho bombas se dedican a repartir el agua a los diferentes depósitos de Salamanca, un agua que ya está depurada y apta para el consumo humano después de haber sufrido un tratamiento intenso y costoso que no apreciamos para nada, pero quizá sea causa de desconocimiento (nota mental concienciarme y concienciar a la gente de mi entorno de lo afortunados que somos por contar con agua de calidad para el consumo a un precio irrisorio).

Lo curioso no son ese conjunto de bombas juntas, sino ese depósito rojo que se ve en la parte superior derecha de la foto y que, por desgracia, aparece cortado. Este depósito es crucial para evitar los golpes de ariete del agua. Pero ¿qué es un golpe de airete?

Investigando un poco he descubierto que los golpes de ariete son unos efectos de los fluidos que se producen en determinadas situaciones: cuando se cierran válvulas (o grifos) de manera brusca en los extremos de las tuberías, debido a la inercia del fluido que venía detrás del que había sido parado por ese cierre, las partículas son empujadas y esto genera una sobrepresión en la tubería. Este exceso de presión origina que se comprima ligeramente el fluido. La imagen para hacernos una idea es una fila de personas patinando sobre un pasillo de hielo y que de pronto a la primera se le ponga delante un muro: el primero se frena del golpe, pero es que todos los que vienen detrás malamente van a parar, lo que provoca un apelotonamiento de gente, es decir una sobre presión.

Hasta aquí ningún problema, pero cuando todo el fluido ha parado y cesa la presión que se ejercía sobre este, el fluido tiende a expandirse de nuevo y además de forma brusca (una vez todos nos hemos golpeado caemos hacia atrás). Esto provoca una onda de presión que debe ser mitigada con algo para que no pegue “el gran estallido”. En el caso de la potabilizadora, ese tanque rojo está colocado en posición horizontal y se llena hasta la mitad de agua, de forma que en caso de que llegue una onda expansiva debida a un cierre brusco de válvulas al estar el tanque semilleno la superficie de agua permite que se transmita la onda así y mitigue su efecto que puede ser muy destructivo.

Esta explicación es de andar por casa, pero es la forma en la que he logrado entenderlo. Sin embargo, aconsejo ver el siguiente vídeo, donde la explicación no sólo es bastante más técnica y correcta, sino que se puede ver con un pequeño dispositivo de laboratorio el comportamiento del fluido bajo estas condiciones.

Golpe de Ariete.

 

 

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