Fluid-driven low-grade metamorphism in polydeformed rocks of Avalonia (Arisaig Group, Nova Scotia, Canada). I. Abad, F. Nieto, G. Gutiérrez-Alonso, J. B.Murphy, J. A. Braid, A. B. Rodríguez-Navarro, 2012, Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 105, 2, 283-297. DESCARGAR-DOWNLOAD
The Lower Silurian—Lower Devonian Arisaig Group (Antigonish Highlands) in the Canadian Appalachians is a sequence of shallow marine strata deposited after the accretion of Avalonia to Baltica during the closure of the Iapetus Ocean. Deformation of the strata is widely attributed to the Devonian Acadian orogeny and produced shallowly plunging regional folds and a cleavage of varying penetrativity. Phyllosilicate minerals from the finestgrained rocks exhibit very low-grade (diagenetic-anchizone) metamorphic conditions. X-ray diffraction study reveals that the sampled rocks contain quartz, K-white mica, chlorite, and feldspars; illite–smectite and chlorite–smectite mixed-layers are common but Na–K mica and kaolinite occur only in some samples. The identification of illite–smectite mixed-layers in diagenetic samples, with Ku¨bler Index [0.50 D2h and the highly heterogeneous b-cell dimension of the K-white micas are in agreement with the variable chemical composition of dioctahedral micas, which present low illitic substitution and variable phengitic content. The spatial variation in the above crystalchemical parameters was plotted along a NW–SE composite cross section across the regional folds. No correlation was found between the metamorphic conditions and either the stratigraphic depth or the strain values measured by phyllosilicates orientation analyses, as a function of the penetrativity of the cleavage. However, the metamorphic grade generally increases towards the Hollow Fault, and is highest in samples located within a 1 km corridor from the fault surface. Incipient cleavage is observed in the anchizonal samples located in the vicinity of the Hollow Fault and in some of the diagenetic samples, indicating cleavage development under low temperatures (\200 8C). These relationships, together with regional syntheses, suggest lowgrade metamorphism post-dated regional folding and was coeval with Late Carboniferous dextral movement along the Hollow Fault. Fluid circulation associated with movement along this major fault may be the driving mechanism for the increasing metamorphism towards it.